News Literacy: Recognizing Fake News and Choosing Reliable Sources

Misinformation and fake news have become the clarion call in these politically charged times, but this is not a new topic. Journalists have been writing pieces from one point-of-view or creating a bias in a particular story to increase readership and ratings for as long as there has been news in print. Thomas Jefferson was credited as the first politician in the U.S. to use muckraking as a political tool, this method of discrediting your opponent has resurfaced lately. So, it is important that we give students the tools to cull through the information available online and in print to find reliable sources.

During a Willows faculty meeting in January, I spoke to the faculty about the proliferation of fake news and offered them some news literacy tools that they could share with the students.

The Washington Post and Reuters posted an article about Canadians heading to the Women’s March in the U.S. that were stopped by U.S. border patrol guards and told to turn back. Each article included an interview of one person (Sasha Dyck), who described the experience. It was the same person interviewed in the two newspapers. So, I wondered, “Why is there only one person being interviewed? Did one news source write the article and the other source copy the information? Was there only one person turned away at the border, or were more people turned away? Can I find more information in other articles?”

dyck_photo

I searched for other articles about Canadians being stopped at the U.S. border because they wanted to attend the Women’s March, and found Joe Kroese, and Joseph Decunha were also turned away according to a BBC News article. Finally, I looked on the fact-checking site Snopes.com to see if there was any information about this incident. Snopes.com had an article about the incident that listed four people who had been turned away at the same border crossing. Was there one overzealous border guard on duty?

These are the steps I used to check the authenticity of my source:

  1. Focus on finding good resources (The Washington Post and Reuters are good resources)
  2. Form questions about the information in the resources
  3. Look up other resources to determine the validity of the original source
  4. Use a fact-checking site to evaluate the information

Fact Checking Sites

Fact Check.Org: A Project of the Annenberg Public Policy Center

Fact-Checking – Duke Reporters’ Lab Duke University’s database of global fact checking sites

Snopes.Com The definitive Internet reference source for urban legends, folklore, myths, rumors, and misinformation

Resources:
Dyck, Sasha. “Sasha Dyck, Second from Left, Who Said He Was Was Turned Away at U.S. Border on Thursday, Instead, He Participated in Women’s March in Montreal with Family and Friends.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 21 Jan. 2017, http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/canadian-traveling-to-womens-march-said-he-was-turned-away-at-the-us-border/2017/01/21/79e4b4ee-dff9-11e6-918c-99ede3c8cafa_story.html?utm_term=.17b93dc46a69. Accessed 2 Mar. 2017.

Erickson, Amanda. “U.S. Border Agents Turned Away Canadians Hoping to Come to the Women’s March.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 21 Jan. 2017, http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/01/21/u-s-border-agents-turned-away-canadians-hoping-to-come-to-the-womens-march/?utm_term=.592322079c09. Accessed 3 Mar. 2017.

Mann, Helen. “’We Didn’t Have Anything to Hide’: Canadian Heading to Women’s March Refused Entry to U.S.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio Canada, 22 Jan. 2017, http://www.cbc.ca/radio/asithappens/as-it-happens-friday-edition-1.3944955/we-didn-t-have-anything-to-hide-canadian-heading-to-women-s-march-refused-entry-to-u-s-1.3944962. Accessed 3 Mar. 2017.

Palma, Bethania. “Canadians Reportedly Turned Away from U.S. Border on Inauguration Day.” Snopes.com, Snopes, 25 Jan. 2017, http://www.snopes.com/2017/01/24/canadians-border-inauguration-day/. Accessed 3 Mar. 2017.

“Protesters from Canada, UK, ‘Turned Away at US Border’.” BBC News, BBC, 21 Jan. 2017, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-38694437. Accessed 3 Mar. 2017.

Sharp, Alastair. “Canadians Traveling to Inauguration Turned Away at U.S. Border.” Reuters, Thomson Reuters, 20 Jan. 2017, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trump-inauguration-canada-idUSKBN1542UD. Accessed 3 Mar. 2017.

“Don’t Dissect the Frog, Build It”

All of sudden, learning by doing has become the standard rather than the exception. Since computer simulation of just about anything is now possible, one need not learn about a frog by dissecting it. Instead, children can be asked to design frogs, to build an animal with froglike behavior, to modify that behavior, to simulate the muscles, to play with the frog.

In advance of a visit to The Willows next week from Nicholas Negroponte, one of the world’s most innovative, revolutionary thinkers (and grandfather to one of our Kindergarteners), I was inspired to revisit an incredibly prescient short piece he wrote for Wired magazine 22 years ago, from which the above quote was taken. The whole piece, “Learning By Doing: Don’t Dissect the Frog, Build It,” is short and worth taking the time to read in full.

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Negroponte is well known as one of the co-founders of the MIT Media Lab and for giving the very first TED talk, where he predicted much of the modern technology we use today (see links below). Reading this Wired article again, I found it fascinating to reflect on which of his predictions for education and society at large actually came true.

One quote that really caught my eye in the  article:

In the 1960s, most pioneers in computers and education advocated a crummy drill-and-practice approach, using computers on a one-on-one basis, in a self-paced fashion, to teach those same God-awful facts more effectively. Now with multimedia, we are faced with a number of closet drill-and-practice believers, who think they can colonize the pizazz of a Sega game to squirt a bit more information into the thick heads of children.

What was true in the 1960s and the 1990s is still true today. Now more than ever, what sells in Ed-tech are just shinier devices and platforms for delivering facts and practicing rote skills. Arguably, there are times and places for facts and skills, but Negroponte reminds us here that educators need to imagine all the ways to use computers to help people learn something besides Googling facts.

Learning By Doing

Negroponte’s insistence that schools promote more learning by doing resonates most today. Essentially, this is the ethos of the maker movement, and one that informs many of the projects I choose for the maker classes that I teach at The Willows.

For example, our third graders are learning about the Native American tribes of California, specifically the villages of the Chumash tribe. Naturally, the classroom teachers and I thought it would be a good idea for the students to make their own interactive version of a Chumash village, complete with littleBits circuits and other tech-related components.

However, before even beginning to create the Chumash village, I asked students to first just build a village. To kill two birds with one stone, I actually asked them to draw and program a village using the software Microworlds EX, so they could practice coding skills while sharing what they know about villages.

The direction I gave was simple: think about what you would find in a village and try to represent that on your screen. As they worked, spontaneous discussions arose about the difference between villages versus cities; students would identify certain components (shelter, food sources and storage, water), inspiring others to add on to their villages in an organic manner. By observing and taking notes as I circulated, I was certainly learning from their doing, and as they designed I noticed they were learning a few things too.

First, given a finite space on which to build, they had to carefully consider where to place different elements of their village, and how much space each could occupy. For example, most students showed that a village has more than one building some for inhabitants to live in and others for various communal purposes; each had to be scaled and placed properly, and much revision was needed as they tinkered with their designs. Second, many students learned that in their first iterations they had omitted certain vital features; for example, only certain students included some means of transportation to move people in and out of their hypothetical village.

Of course, I could have simply read a book or showed a video about villages to them beforehand if I wanted to ensure that they all had close to identical villages with all of the same elements. But my goal was for these third graders to construct their own understanding about how villages work, rather than mimic what I told them should go into a village. Or, echoing Negroponte’s words, I asked them to build their own village instead of dissecting someone else’s.

By asking them to learn by doing, I was actively engaging them, and also allowing them to teach me what they knew or didn’t know, to inform the rest of our project.

For more on Nicholas Negroponte, here are a few links, old and new: